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  1. Kalash tribe key beliefs and practices are include:

    1. Polytheism: The Kalash tribe believe in multiple deities and spirits, so they are polytheistic. They have images of gods and goddesses that they worship and offer sacrifices too.

    2. Nature Worship: The Kalash people have a strong connection with nature. They believe that spirits reside in natural elements such as trees, rivers, mountains, and animals. Many of their rituals and festivals are centered around nature.

    3. Ancestor Worship: The Kalash people respect their ancestors and believe that the spirits of the deceased continue to play a role in their lives. Ancestral spirits are believed to protect the living and are honored during various rituals.

    4. Festivals and Rituals: The Kalash tribe are known for their colorful festivals and rituals. The two most famous festivals are the “Chilimjushi” in spring and the “Uchal” in autumn. These festivals involve dancing, singing, feasting, and various rituals aimed at seeking blessings from the deities and ensuring good fortune for the community.

    5. Sacrifices: Animal sacrifices are an basic part of Kalash religious practices. Sacrifices are made to appease the gods and spirits, particularly during festivals and other significant events.

    6. Social Structure: The Kalash society is divided into different castes, and religious specialists called “Jestak” and “Besa” hold important roles. They serve as intermediaries between the community and the spiritual world, performing rituals, leading ceremonies, and providing guidance.

    7. Oral Traditions: The Kalash religion and cultural practices are passed down through oral traditions, stories, and songs. They do not have written scriptures but rely on verbal transmission of their beliefs and history.

    It is important to note that the Kalash culture and religion have faced challenges due to external influences, including the dominant Muslim culture in Pakistan. Over time, the Kalash community has experienced some degree of conversion to Islam. Which has led to concerns about the preservation of their distinct identity and practices.

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